Membrane retention of herbicides from single and multi-solute media: The effect of ionic environment, Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 320, Issues 1–2, pp. 325–334.
Έτος : 2008
Author : Plakas K.V., Karabelas A.J.
Results are reported for a systematic study on retention of three selected herbicides, in single solute or multi-solute feed-waters, by three commercial NF/ULPRO membranes, using stirred cells in the dead-end filtration mode. The effect of ionic environment on the retention of herbicides is also examined by controlling sodium and calcium concentration. The results are interpreted on the basis of the characteristic properties of herbicides and membranes used. In general, size exclusion seems to be the dominant mechanism for retention by NF/ULPRO membranes, especially in the case of membranes with a pore size similar to that of herbicide molecules. Tight and thus high-desalting membranes exhibit the best retention performance. On the other hand, the retention efficiency of relatively loose nanofiltration membranes also appears to be significantly influenced by adsorption of herbicides on the membrane. Filtration of feedwaters with more than one herbicide present results in different retentions (usually reduced) compared to those determined in single compound solutions. This is attributed to the competition between the herbicides for adsorption sites, which is directly related to membrane surface properties. Filtration experiments with saline solutions, mimicking real conditions (e.g. surfacewater), reveal the significant effect of divalent cations on herbicide retention, which, depending on the membrane type, can be either positive or negative. However, the effect of ionic strength, due to monovalent ions (NaCl), on herbicides retention appears to be rather minor.