Dynamic operation of flat sheet desalination-membrane elements: A comprehensive model accounting for organic fouling
Reliable simulation of membrane-module dynamic operation is essential in optimizing its detailed geo-metric characteristics and operation, as well as that of membrane plants, for various types of fluidtreatment applications. This paper is part of systematic efforts toward development of such a compre-hensive model, considering temporal variability caused by organic membrane fouling. To render themathematical problem tractable, justified simplifications (retaining the physical parameter interdepen-dencies) lead to a system of basic equations in two spatial planar coordinates, enabling to obtain a realistictemporal evolution of all process parameters. The flexible model structure allows integration of sub-models, for phenomena occurring (and researched) at small spatial scales, which account for retentatespacer effects on friction losses and mass transfer, and constitutive expressions for fouling rates duringdesalination. The robust numerical algorithm developed to solve the system of differential and algebraicequations exhibits satisfactory convergence, appropriate for applications. The results presented hereindemonstrate the versatility of the numerical code and its potential to analyze the interaction of mecha-nisms involved in fouling evolution, which is impossible by the much simpler one dimensional models.Directions for future developments are indicated.