Characterization and assessment of water treatment technologies for reuse, Desalination, vol. 218, pp 92-104.
Έτος : 2008
Author : de Koning J., Bixio D., Karabelas A., Salgot M., Schaffer A.
A key element in the Aquarec project is the development of a water treatment matrix in which wastewater treatment process schemes are categorized as a function of the raw wastewater quality and the reuse application. Starting point is the definition of reuse applications; municipal wastewater can be reused for an industrial, a domestic, a natural, and an agricultural purpose. Next step in building the treatment matrix is the construction of treatment trains. With existing primary, secondary and tertiary unit process operations numerous different treatment trains can be constructed. The EU directives discharge limits should be the starting point for further treatment of municipal wastewater for reuse. Therefore effluent will be the main primary source for wastewater reclamation in the short term. Based on this conclusion a set of typical or standard schemes was developed. The typical or standard schemes are illustrated by case studies. In the long term, schemes alternative to the traditional chain can become feasible options. One of the innovations is direct membrane filtration of raw wastewater. Other innovating technologies are advanced oxidation processes. The latter become more and more important since substances such as pesticides, endocrine disrupters, etc. are given priority.